Papers under revision

  1. Beyond Anonymity: Network Affordances, under Deindividuation, Improve Social Media Discussion Quality. Revise and Resubmit, Journal of Computer Mediated-Communication. Kokil Jaidka, Alvin Zhou, Yphtach Lelkes, Jana Laura Egelhofer and Sophie Lecheler.
  2. American Support for Political Violence is Low. Conditional Accept at The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Sean J. Westwood, Justin Grimmer, Matthew Tyler and Clayton Nall.


  1. Does affective polarization undermine democratic norms or accountability? Maybe not. Forthcoming at American Journal of Political Science. David Broockman, Joshua Kalla and Sean J. Westwood.

2021 (and accepted work)

  1. Opinion dynamics and polarization. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Naomi Leonard, Anastasia Bizyaeva, Alessio Franci, Yphtach Lelkes and Keena Lipsitz.
  2. Kawakatsu, M., Lelkes, Y., Levin, S., Tarnita, C. Cooperation–Polarization–Cohesion: A Tense Triad in the Information Age. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  3. The Nature of Affective Polarization: Disentangling Policy Disagreement from Partisan Identity. American Journal of Political Science. Nicholas Dias and Yphtach Lelkes.
  4. Identity, affect, and the political preferences of biracial Americans. American Journal of Political Science. Lauren Davenport, Shanto Iyengar and Sean J. Westwood.
  5. The Inseparability of Race and Partisanship in the United States. Political Behavior Sean J. Westwood and Erik Peterson.
  6. Partisan Gaps in Political Information and Information-Seeking Behavior: Motivated Reasoning or Cheerleading?, Erik Peterson and Shanto Iyengar.
  7. The partisanship of bipartisanship: How representatives use bipartisan assertions to cultivate support.” Political Behavior. Sean J. Westwood.
  8. Policy over party: Comparing the effects of candidate ideology and party on affective polarization. Political Science Research and Methods. Yphtach Lelkes.


  1. Political sectarianism in America. Science. E.J. Finkel, C.A. Bail, M. Cikara, P.H. Ditto, S. Iyengar, S. Klar, L. Mason, M.C. McGrath, B. Nyhan, D.G. Rand, L.J. Skitka, J.A. Tucker, J.J. Van Bavel, C.S. Wang, & J.N. Druckman


  1. Understanding Partisan Cue Receptivity: Tests of Predictions from the Bounded Rationality and Expressive Utility Perspectives.. Journal of Politics. Bert N Bakker, Yphtach Lelkes, Ariel Malka.
  2. The Limits of Partisan Loyalty. Political Behavior. Jonathan Mummolo, Erik Peterson and Sean J. Westwood.
  3. Are There Still Limits on Partisan Prejudice?. Public Opinion Quarterly. Sean J. Westwood, Erik Peterson and Yphtach Lelkes.
  4. The Origins and Consequences of Affective Polarization in the United States. Annual Review of Political Science Shanto Iyengar, Yphtach Lelkes, Matthew Levendusky, Neil Malhotra and Sean J. Westwood.
  5. Echo Chambers and Partisan Polarization: Evidence from the 2016 Presidential Campaign. Political Science Research and Methods. Erik Peterson, Sharad Goel and Shanto Iyengar


  1. The Tie That Divides: Cross-National Evidence of the Primacy of Partyism. European Journal of Political Research. Sean J. Westwood, Shanto Iyengar, Stefan Walgrave, Raphael Leonisio, Luis Miller, and Oliver Strijbis
  2. Partisanship as Social Identity; Implications for the Study of Party Polarization. Shanto Iyengar and Masha Krupenkin.
  3. The Strengthening of Partisan Affect. Shanto Iyengar and Masha Krupenkin.
  4. The Home as a Political Fortress; Family Agreement in an Era of Polarization. Shanto Iyengar, Tobias Konitzer and Kent Tedin
  5. Affective Polarization and Ideological Sorting: A Reciprocal, albeit Weak, Relationship. The Forum: A Journal of Applied Research in Contemporary Politics. Yphtach Lelkes.


  1. The limits of partisan prejudice. The Journal of Politics. Yphtach Lelkes and Sean J. Westwood.
  2. The Hostile Audience: The Effect of Access to Broadband Internet on Partisan Affect. American Journal of Political Science. Y. Lelkes, G. Sood & S. Iyengar
  3. The Ideological Asymmetry of the American Party System. British Journal of Political Science. Yphtach Lelkes and Paul Sniderman.

2016 and earlier

  1. Mass Polarization: Manifestations and Measurements. Public Opinion Quarterly. Yphtach Lelkes.
  2. E Pluribus Pluribus, or Divided We Stand. Public Opinion Quarterly. Shanto Iyengar
  3. Fear and Loathing Across Party Lines: New Evidence on Group Polarization. American Journal of Political Science. Shanto Iyengar and Sean J. Westwood
  4. Selective Exposure in the Age of Social Media: Endorsements Trump Partisan Source Affiliation When Selecting News Online. Communication Research. Solomon Messing and Sean J. Westwood
  5. Affect, Not Ideology: A Social Identity Perspective on Polarization. Public Opinion Quarterly. Shanto Iyengar, Gaurav Sood and Yphtach Lelkes
  6. Red Media, Blue Media: Evidence of Ideological Polarization in Media Use. Journal of Communication. Shanto Iyengar & Kyu Hahn

Working papers

  1. Positive Partisanship: Americans like their own party more than they hate the other party. Hye-Yon Lee and Yphtach Lelkes.
  2. How much do we really know about ideological asymmetries? Kevin Arceneaux, Burt Bakker, Rose Hoffman, Yphtach Lelkes.
  3. Ancestral Kinship and the Origins of Ideology. Yphtach Lelkes.
  4. The Ideological Landscape of Elites on Twitter. Subhayan Mukerjee, Kokil Jaidka, Yphtach Lelkes.
  5. Immigration, partisanship and affective polarization. Catherine Clayton, Jeremy Ferwerda, Yusaku Horiuchi, and Sean J. Westwood.