Papers under revision

  1. Beyond Anonymity: Network Affordances, under Deindividuation, Improve Social Media Discussion Quality. Revise and Resubmit, Journal of Computer Mediated-Communication. Kokil Jaidka, Alvin Zhou, Yphtach Lelkes, Jana Laura Egelhofer and Sophie Lecheler.


  1. Asymmetric ideological segregation in exposure to political news on Facebook. Sandra González-Bailón, Shanto Iyengar, et al, Science 381 , 392-398(2023).
  2. Silenced on social media: the gatekeeping functions of shadowbans in the American Twitterverse. Journal of Communication. Kokil Jaidka, Subhayan Mukerjee, Yphtach Lelkes.
  3. Ancestral Kinship and the Origins of Ideology. British Journal of Political Science. Neil Fasching and Yphtach Lelkes.


  1. Do social media undermine social cohesion? A critical review. Social Issues and Policy Review. Sandra González-Bailón and Yphtach Lelkes.
  2. Does affective polarization undermine democratic norms or accountability? Maybe not. American Journal of Political Science. David Broockman, Joshua Kalla and Sean J. Westwood.
  3. Current research overstates American support for political violence. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Sean J. Westwood, Justin Grimmer, Matthew Tyler, Clayton Nall.
  4. Learning to Dislike Your Opponents: Political Socialization in the Era of Polarization. American Political Science Review. Matthew Tyler and Shanto Iyengar.
  5. Measuring dynamic media bias. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Eunji Kim, Yphtach Lelkes, Joshua McCrain.


  1. Racial Identity, Group Consciousness, and Attitudes: A Framework for Assessing Multiracial Self-Classification. American Journal of Political Science. Lauren Davenport, Sean J. Westwood, Shanto Iyengar.
  2. The nonlinear feedback dynamics of asymmetric political polarization. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Naomi Leonard, Anastasia Bizyaeva, Alessio Franci, Yphtach Lelkes and Keena Lipsitz.
  3. Interindividual cooperation mediated by partisanship complicates Madison’s cure for “mischiefs of faction”. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Kawakatsu, M., Lelkes, Y., Levin, S., Tarnita, C.
  4. The Nature of Affective Polarization: Disentangling Policy Disagreement from Partisan Identity. American Journal of Political Science. Nicholas Dias and Yphtach Lelkes.
  5. Identity, affect, and the political preferences of biracial Americans. American Journal of Political Science. Lauren Davenport, Shanto Iyengar and Sean J. Westwood.
  6. The Inseparability of Race and Partisanship in the United States. Political Behavior Sean J. Westwood and Erik Peterson.
  7. Partisan Gaps in Political Information and Information-Seeking Behavior: Motivated Reasoning or Cheerleading?, Erik Peterson and Shanto Iyengar.
  8. Partisan selective exposure in online news consumption: Evidence from the 2016 presidential campaign. Political Science Research and Methods. Erik Peterson, Sharad Goel, and Shanto Iyengar.
  9. The partisanship of bipartisanship: How representatives use bipartisan assertions to cultivate support.” Political Behavior. Sean J. Westwood.
  10. Policy over party: Comparing the effects of candidate ideology and party on affective polarization. Political Science Research and Methods. Yphtach Lelkes.


  1. Political sectarianism in America. Science. E.J. Finkel, C.A. Bail, M. Cikara, P.H. Ditto, S. Iyengar, S. Klar, L. Mason, M.C. McGrath, B. Nyhan, D.G. Rand, L.J. Skitka, J.A. Tucker, J.J. Van Bavel, C.S. Wang, & J.N. Druckman
  2. Partisanship as a Social Identity: Implications for Polarization. Political Behavior. Emily West and Shanto Iyengar.


  1. Understanding Partisan Cue Receptivity: Tests of Predictions from the Bounded Rationality and Expressive Utility Perspectives.. Journal of Politics. Bert N Bakker, Yphtach Lelkes, Ariel Malka.
  2. The Limits of Partisan Loyalty. Political Behavior. Jonathan Mummolo, Erik Peterson and Sean J. Westwood.
  3. Are There Still Limits on Partisan Prejudice?. Public Opinion Quarterly. Sean J. Westwood, Erik Peterson and Yphtach Lelkes.
  4. The Origins and Consequences of Affective Polarization in the United States. Annual Review of Political Science Shanto Iyengar, Yphtach Lelkes, Matthew Levendusky, Neil Malhotra and Sean J. Westwood.
  5. Echo Chambers and Partisan Polarization: Evidence from the 2016 Presidential Campaign. Political Science Research and Methods. Erik Peterson, Sharad Goel and Shanto Iyengar


  1. The Tie That Divides: Cross-National Evidence of the Primacy of Partyism. European Journal of Political Research. Sean J. Westwood, Shanto Iyengar, Stefan Walgrave, Raphael Leonisio, Luis Miller, and Oliver Strijbis
  2. Partisanship as Social Identity; Implications for the Study of Party Polarization. Shanto Iyengar and Masha Krupenkin.
  3. The Strengthening of Partisan Affect. Shanto Iyengar and Masha Krupenkin.
  4. The Home as a Political Fortress; Family Agreement in an Era of Polarization. Shanto Iyengar, Tobias Konitzer and Kent Tedin
  5. Affective Polarization and Ideological Sorting: A Reciprocal, albeit Weak, Relationship. The Forum: A Journal of Applied Research in Contemporary Politics. Yphtach Lelkes.


  1. The limits of partisan prejudice. The Journal of Politics. Yphtach Lelkes and Sean J. Westwood.
  2. The Hostile Audience: The Effect of Access to Broadband Internet on Partisan Affect. American Journal of Political Science. Y. Lelkes, G. Sood & S. Iyengar
  3. The Ideological Asymmetry of the American Party System. British Journal of Political Science. Yphtach Lelkes and Paul Sniderman.

2016 and earlier

  1. Mass Polarization: Manifestations and Measurements. Public Opinion Quarterly. Yphtach Lelkes.
  2. E Pluribus Pluribus, or Divided We Stand. Public Opinion Quarterly. Shanto Iyengar
  3. Fear and Loathing Across Party Lines: New Evidence on Group Polarization. American Journal of Political Science. Shanto Iyengar and Sean J. Westwood
  4. Selective Exposure in the Age of Social Media: Endorsements Trump Partisan Source Affiliation When Selecting News Online. Communication Research. Solomon Messing and Sean J. Westwood
  5. Affect, Not Ideology: A Social Identity Perspective on Polarization. Public Opinion Quarterly. Shanto Iyengar, Gaurav Sood and Yphtach Lelkes
  6. Red Media, Blue Media: Evidence of Ideological Polarization in Media Use. Journal of Communication. Shanto Iyengar & Kyu Hahn